The Edinburgh Critical History of Nineteenth-Century Philosophy (vol. 5)

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Show less. Oxford History of Modern German Theology. Hope Wolfe, J. Ziegler, P.

Philosophy and Science in Nineteenth-Century Austria

McInroy, M. Brepols Publishers , Arts and the Sacred; vol.

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The eschatological turn in German philosophy Wolfe, J. The Oxford handbook of nineteenth-century Christian thought Wolfe, J. Eschatology Wolfe, J. Rasmussen, J. Heidegger and theology Wolfe, J. Heidegger's Black Notebooks: caught in the trap of his own ideas Wolfe, J. Eschatology and human knowledge of God Wolfe, J. Clarke, A. Oxford: Oxford University Press , p. Lewis on Power Wolfe, J.

Literature and Medicine in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press

He is the author of Schellings Philosophie des ewigen Anfangs and Socrates among Strangers In addition, he has written a number of essays on German philosophy and litera- ture. He is currently working on an alternative reading of Schelling that will accompany his translation of the version of the Ages of the World, which will be published in by SUNY Press. He regards it as part of a larger ongoing project on philosophical religion. Her most recent essays and current book project focus on the twentieth-century American thinker, John William Miller.

Her publications include Kaleidoscope: F. Dostoevsky and Early Dialectical Theology Brill, Daniel Whistler is a senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool. He has worked in patristics, modern theology, philosophy of religion, and the reception history of Christian theology.

The Edinburgh Critical History of Nineteenth-Century Philosophy - Edinburgh University Press

His research triangulates music, theology and science from the long nineteenth century to the present. Berdjaev und Sergej N. She co-edits the journal Religion und Gesellschaft in Ost und West, and has published a number of essays on Russian and Soviet concepts of personality and on Russian Orthodox human rights discourse.

The following critical history charts some of these processes of reshaping by means of a focus on the conceptual developments of the period that cross authors, disciplines and nations, by means, that is, of surveys of theolog- ical interactions with anthropology, art, industry, literature, philosophy, politics, science and society.

The essays contained herein aim to disclose the various material and intellec- tual conditions of theological discourse in the nineteenth century and, in consequence, hope to show how the problems and themes of the nineteenth century have in turn given shape to later theological thinking.

The Edinburgh Critical History of Philosophy, Volume 5: The Nineteenth Century

Late eighteenth-century life in Western Europe in particular was a period of turmoil. Over the coming century, there were further social crises, such as the acceleration of the indus- trial revolution with consequent anxieties over automatism and unbridled innovation, as well as urbanisation, the formation of a mass proletariat and widespread poverty. In many nation-states, politics consisted of waves of revolution and restoration, of the freedoms, terrors and reactions of , , , The academy was similarly marked by revolutionary systems of idealisms, naturalisms and historicisms, as well as very unsystem- atic exercises in scepticism, ideism and irony.

And, of course, the nineteenth century witnessed great scientiic ferment too: not merely that which followed in the wake of the publication of On the Origin of Species in , but also that occasioned by debates over the nature and speed of geological formation, the inviolability of natural laws and the distinction of life from the inorganic. What is more, the above contributed to a further crisis that could be more properly called theological: the loss at least, partially of the self-evidence of Christian revelation.

However negligible such scepticism may have been from a sociological perspective, its voice was heard and demanded a theological reaction. Theology thus attained modernity in the nineteenth century, and this modernity was constituted out of anxiety over its own foundations.

The original ground of Christianity — the immediate, indubitable suficiency of revelation — was felt to have withdrawn and been replaced with external foundations, both real and ideal capitalism, the university, the idea of historical progress, etc. On the one hand, this fracture bred a new sense of untethered freedom, a series of theological experiments let loose from the normative chains of orthodoxy.

On the other hand, the same lack of self-suficiency led to a resto- rationist pursuit of legitimacy — whether it be legitimisation by means of the university, confessional norms, or even the promise of incontrovertible facts at the end of the quest for the historical Jesus.

Notwithstanding such restorationist tendencies, theological purity was rare in the nine- teenth century. The attempt to remain faithful to the kerygma not only had to stretch backwards across nineteen hundred years of history, but was also to be mediated through the frameworks of other sciences.

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In order to secure Christian truths, the theologian must become archivist, metaphysician, anthropologist and natural scientist; she must fragment herself across scientiic disciplines for the sake of the integrity of theology. What mattered was how theologians made use of these external discourses, as well as, conversely, how theological material was itself redeployed for extrinsic ends.

Theology was formed and reformed by these forces that transcend, engulf, fracture and resist it. The essays, then, detail various encounters between the theological and non-theological, and so their subject matter is not so much the traditional topoi of Christian theology the doctrine of God, Christology, Eschatology, Soteriology , but meta-theological points of contact between Christian theology and its external conditions — points at which such traditional topics transform and are transformed by developments in the arts, the natural sciences, philosophy, politics and social conditions.

Such death-of-God thinking, she points out, is not solely limited to usual suspects like Hegel and Nietzsche, but motivates the poetry of Blake, the novels of Dostoevsky, the music of Berlioz, the philosophies of Maimon and Schelling, the historiography of Overbeck, as well as the political atheisms of Stirner and Bakunin. The second chapter considers how theologians in the nineteenth century ictionalised an a-Christian outside from which to peer back in at the workings of Christianity.

Susan Curtis provides an overview of the relation between social changes and the shape of Christian theology in the nineteenth century.

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  • In particular, she focuses on American social theology, looking to the intricate entangling of social reform movements and the- ological thinking at this time. Charting diverse conceptualisations of freedom as they arose out of liberal, Marxist, Slavophile and populist projects, she shows how theological accounts of freedom were indelibly marked by contemporary political and social debate. In so doing, she demon- strates the problems with ahistorical constructions of theologies of freedom severed from their reference to social context: the Orthodox concept of freedom, for one, is an effect of a cumulative build-up of competing social movements in nineteenth-century Russia.

    He charts in detail the migration of the concept of fetish from the study of religions to its instantiation as the very form of capital itself Kapitalfetish. Ruth Barton argues that the problematisation of the miraculous in Victorian England was not so much due to the triumphant march of a wave of scientist-heroes sweeping away old superstitions, but rather emerged out of a struggle played out in the works of many theologically and scientiically inclined thinkers.

    Johannes Zachhuber provides a rigorous Begriffsgeschichte of the conceptual opposition of immanence and transcendence, which was a product of nineteenth-century German theology. Andrew W. In his chapter, George Pattison interrogates the commonplace that Christian theology was complicit in the advent of the nineteenth-century historical turn. While theolog- ical motivations may have contributed to such a historical turn — indeed, while such a historical turn may well be a secularisation of Christian eschatological templates — Pattison points to the radicalisation of this historicisation in Kierkegaard, Schweitzer, Nietzsche and Burkhardt as a challenge to theological thinking.

    That is, if the very condi- tions of understanding history are themselves historicised, then the uniied narrative that Christianity tells is put into question. Nineteenth-century theology has, therefore, a much more uneasy relation to history than is usually claimed. He points to the discursive abjection of the igures of the Jew and the animal as evidence for the violence out of which nineteenth-century theological anthropology is born.

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    Shakespeare writes in a passage that is crucial for the ethos of the volume as a whole: The nineteenth-century human is a bridge; however, the ends which tether that bridge are no longer ixed or well understood. The human is stretched between the animal and the divine, but these categories are themselves falling into dispute. Indeed, dreams of such a ground often turn out to be fantasies conceal- ing another violence. Lawrence considers the ways in which the recuperation of texts from Eastern religions during the nineteenth century provided a challenge to Christian theology.

    On the one hand, it was caught up in the discourses of colonialism, particularly in Britain and France, leading to a violent othering of the East. Moreover, in Germany particularly, it fed into a growing anti-Semitism that insisted on bypassing Jewish contributions to modern Europe in the name of the Orient.

    On the other hand, however, Lawrence writes, it fos- tered a non-sectarian reconception of religion as a practice, rather than a set of dogmas. He argues that a general reaction against understandings of the sermon as imparting dogma rationalis- tically led to new models in homiletics, such as the sermon as performance. This, she concludes, points forward to late twentieth-century ecotheologies. Notes 1. This passage is discussed in a similar context in Taylor —8. Mill, John Stuart [] , Autobiography, ed.