Polycyclic Hydrocarbons: Volume 2

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      Other availability. Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book. The loading that each variable in the original data contributes to the principal components enables grouping of data with similar behaviors.

      Polycyclic Hydrocarbons: Volume 2

      Results and discussion. The concentration ranges of individual and total PAHs in surface water are shown in Table 1. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 0. The compositional pattern of PAH by ring size along the contamination gradient is shown in Figure 2. Fluorine is one of the most frequently detected compounds in almost all of the surface water samples. The concentrations of PAHs in waters exceeding A lethal concentration LC50 as low as Due to the wide range of values for this index found in literature, values between 10 and 15 are not considered precise relating to the source Yang, ; Sanders et al.

      In order to explore more latent relationships among all the stations investigated, the principal component analysis PCA was applied to the obtained results.

      Polycyclic Hydrocarbons

      Distribution of the PAHs data for surface water among the primary and secondary principal component axes is shown in Figure 3. There are three groups discriminated on the factor loading plot Figure 3A. Group A clusters samples of stations 1 and 9; group B, samples collected from stations 3 and 5; group C contains samples collected from stations 2, 4 and 6 to 8. The discrimination in three groups was confirmed by hierarchical clustering analysis HCA , using complete linkage and Euclidean distances.

      As shown in Figure 3A , group A is characterized by the negative axes of both principal components; on the other hand, from Figure 3B , this quadrant is dominated by phenanthrene. It indicated that phenanthrene contributed significantly to the samples in group A, and the prominent contribution of phenanthrene over the contribution of the other PAHs was notable. The samples in group B got their contribution mostly from fluorine, which dominated the PAHs.

      However, compared with group A, the samples in group B gave a relatively high contribution to factor 2. This conclusion can be confirmed by Figure 3B. The PAH profiles for the water samples revealed that the dominant PAHs were low molecular weight two- and three ring PAHs in a surface water aquatic environment including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene and anthracene. The PAHs in surface water samples originated mainly from petrogenic inputs based on the high proportion of two-ring naphthalene and three-ring PAHs.

      The analysis results showed that the ratios and PCA could be applied to surface water investigation to some extent. Oil spill and leakage from boats and ships, vehicular exhaust emission, discharge from municipal and industrial wastewater and runoff might be important sources.

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      It indicates that surface water received anthropogenic PAHs from different sources and although specific sources are known to be responsible for the presence of PAHs in surface waters, their occurrence cannot always be related to a particular source. Bibliographic references. Are aromatic hydrocarbons the primary determinant of petroleum toxicity to aquatic organisms?

      Analytical procedure for the analysis of PAHs in biological tissues by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: application to mussels. Fresenius J. BRUN, G. Atmospheric deposition of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons to Atlantic, Canada: geographic and temporal distributions and trends Salvador: Governo do Estado da Bahia, Agosto de Evidence of estrogen- and TCDD-like activities in crude and fractionated extracts of PM10 air particulate material using in vitro gene expression assays.

      Handbook of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Volume 2 (Book) | alunbeivati.ml

      Tropical coast of Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

      Nomenclature of Polycyclic Compounds: Naphthalene, Biphenyl, Anthracene, Spiro, Bicyclo

      The tides and tidal circulation of Todos os Santos Bay, Northeast Brazil: a general characterization.