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Improve Your Health. Watch Today. Support our charitable programs by making a donation. Donate Today. Latest News. GIS T Dr. Frank H. Celiac Disease. Diverticular Disease. Gastrointestinal diseases abbrev. GI diseases or GI illnesses refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract , namely the oesophagus , stomach , small intestine , large intestine and rectum , and the accessory organs of digestion , the liver , gallbladder , and pancreas. Even though anatomically part of the GI tract, diseases of the mouth are often not considered alongside other gastrointestinal diseases.
By far the most common oral conditions are plaque -induced diseases e. Some diseases which involve other parts of the GI tract can manifest in the mouth, alone or in combination, including:. Oesophageal diseases include a spectrum of disorders affecting the oesophagus. The most common condition of the oesophagus in Western countries is gastroesophageal reflux disease ,  which in chronic forms is thought to result in changes to the epithelium of the oesophagus, known as Barrett's oesophagus.
Acute disease might include infections such as oesophagitis , trauma caused by the ingestion of corrosive substances, or rupture of veins such as oesophageal varices , Boerhaave syndrome or Mallory-Weiss tears. Chronic diseases might include congenital diseases such as Zenker's diverticulum and esophageal webbing , and o esophageal motility disorders including the nutcracker oesophagus , achalasia , diffuse oesophageal spasm , and oesophageal stricture. Oesophageal disease may result in a sore throat , throwing up blood , difficulty swallowing or vomiting.
Chronic or congenital diseases might be investigated using barium swallows , endoscopy and biopsy , whereas acute diseases such as reflux may be investigated and diagnosed based on symptoms and a medical history alone. Gastric diseases refer to diseases affecting the stomach. Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis , and when including other parts of the gastrointestinal tract called gastroenteritis. When gastritis persists in a chronic state, it is associated with several diseases, including atrophic gastritis , pyloric stenosis , and gastric cancer.
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Another common condition is gastric ulceration , peptic ulcers. Ulceration erodes the gastric mucosa , which protects the tissue of the stomach from the stomach acids. Peptic ulcers are most commonly caused by a bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection.
As well as peptic ulcers, vomiting blood may result from abnormal arteries or veins that have ruptured, including Dieulafoy's lesion and Gastric antral vascular ectasia. Congenital disorders of the stomach include pernicious anaemia , in which a targeted immune response against parietal cells results in an inability to absorb vitamin B Other common symptoms that stomach disease might cause include indigestion or dyspepsia , vomiting , and in chronic disease, digestive problems leading to forms of malnutrition.
The small and large intestines may be affected by infectious , autoimmune, and physiological states.
Inflammation of the intestines is called enterocolitis , which may lead to diarrhea. Acute conditions affecting the bowels include infectious diarrhoea and mesenteric ischaemia. Causes of constipation may include faecal impaction and bowel obstruction , which may in turn be caused by ileus , intussusception , volvulus. Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition of unknown aetiology, classified as either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis , that can affect the intestines and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Other causes of illness include intestinal pseudoobstruction , and necrotizing enterocolitis.
Diseases of the intestine may cause vomiting , diarrhoea or constipation , and altered stool , such as with blood in stool. Colonoscopy may be used to examine the large intestine, and a person's stool may be sent for culture and microscopy.
Infectious disease may be treated with targeted antibiotics , and inflammatory bowel disease with immunosuppression. Surgery may also be used to treat some causes of bowel obstruction. The small intestine consists of the duodenum , jejunum and ileum. Inflammation of the small intestine is called enteritis , which if localised to just part is called duodenitis , jejunitis and ileitis , respectively. Peptic ulcers are also common in the duodenum.
Chronic diseases of malabsorption may affect the small intestine, including the autoimmune coeliac disease , infective Tropical sprue , and congenital or surgical short bowel syndrome. Other rarer diseases affecting the small intestine include Curling's ulcer , blind loop syndrome , Milroy disease and Whipple's disease.
Tumours of the small intestine include gastrointestinal stromal tumours , lipomas , hamartomas and carcinoid syndromes. Diseases of the small intestine may present with symptoms such as diarrhoea , malnutrition , fatigue and weight loss. Investigations pursued may include blood tests to monitor nutrition, such as iron levels, folate and calcium , endoscopy and biopsy of the duodenum, and barium swallow. Treatments may include renutrition, and antibiotics for infections.
Diseases that affect the large intestine may affect it in whole or in part. Appendicitis is one such disease, caused by inflammation of the appendix. Generalised inflammation of the large intestine is referred to as colitis , which when caused be the bacteria Clostridium difficile is referred to as pseudomembranous colitis. Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain resulting from outpouchings that particularly affects the colon. Functional colonic diseases refer to disorders without a known cause, and include irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal pseudoobstruction.
Constipation may result from lifestyle factors, impaction of a rigid stool in the rectum, or in neonates , Hirschprung's disease. Diseases affecting the large intestine may cause blood to be passed with stool, may cause constipation , or may result in abdominal pain or a fever. Tests that specifically examine the function of the large intestine include barium swallows, abdominal x-rays , and colonoscopy.
Diseases affecting the rectum and anus are extremely common, especially in older adults. Hemorrhoids , vascular outpouchings of skin, are very common, as is pruritus ani , referring to anal itchiness. Other conditions, such as anal cancer may be associated with ulcerative colitis or with sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. Inflammation of the rectum is known as proctitis , one cause of which is radiation damage associated with radiotherapy to other sites such as the prostate.
Faecal incontinence can result from mechanical and neurological problems, and when associated with a lack of voluntary voiding ability is described as encopresis. Pain on passing stool may result from anal abscesses , small inflamed nodules, anal fissures , and anal fistulas.
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Rectal and anal disease may be asymptomatic, or may present with pain when passing stools, fresh blood in stool , a feeling of incomplete emptying , or pencil-thin stools. In addition to regular tests, medical tests used to investigate the anus and rectum include the digital rectal exam and proctoscopy.
Hepatic diseases refers to those affecting the liver. Hepatitis refers to inflammation of liver tissue, and may be acute or chronic. Infectious viral hepatitis , such as hepatitis A , B and C , affect in excess of X million people worldwide. Liver disease may also be a result of lifestyle factors, such as fatty liver and NASH.